RegulatoryWhat is a non-disclosure agreement (NDA)?

What is a non-disclosure agreement (NDA)?

Non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) are a type of contract that helps you protect your business’ confidential information when you need to discuss your business in detail with another business or consultant and they are commonly used to protect information such as confidential financial details when discussing a potential deal with another person or company.

NDAs help protect confidential business information

Your business’ ideas, inventions, customer data, and financial information are all essential elements to the success of your company – so you need to protect this confidential information to make sure competitors cannot take advantage of your ideas. Whether it’s proprietary technology, confidential business strategies, or customer data, protecting this information is paramount to maintaining a competitive advantage in the market.

However, if you need to discuss a potential deal or agreement – perhaps hiring a consultant or using an agency to manage your marketing – then they will need to access and understand confidential information or they will not be able to help you and do their job.

To protect your company’s confidential information in these discussions, you should use a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) that establishes a legal framework that ensures anyone with access to your sensitive information is bound by confidentiality obligations in a contract they have signed. This agreement serves as a deterrent against unauthorized disclosure and provides you with legal recourse if your confidential information is shared or used outside of the agreement.

Legal reasons for using an NDA

Before you use a non-disclosure agreement, it’s important to understand the legal implications of using one in the UK. While NDAs are widely enforceable, you need to write it carefully to ensure it is legally binding and that it provides adequate protection for your business.

Under UK law, NDAs must be clear, unambiguous, and reasonable in their terms. They should specify the information considered confidential, the purpose for which it is shared, and the duration of the confidentiality obligation. It is also essential to ensure that the NDA does not contain any provisions that may be deemed unreasonable or unfair by a court, as this may render the agreement unenforceable.

Recent legal changes have highlighted the need for transparency and fairness in the use of NDAs, particularly in cases involving allegations of harassment or discrimination. Employers must be mindful of these legal considerations and ensure their NDAs comply with current legal practice.

Different types of non-disclosure agreements

Non-disclosure agreements can take various forms, depending on the nature of the information being protected and the specific circumstances of the agreement. The two primary types of NDAs are unilateral and mutual agreements.

  1. Unilateral NDA: A unilateral NDA is the most common type of agreement used when one party discloses confidential information to another party. In this scenario, only the receiving party is bound by the confidentiality obligations.
  2. Mutual NDA: Mutual NDAs, also known as bilateral NDAs, are used when both parties are sharing confidential information. This type of agreement ensures that both parties are equally bound by the confidentiality obligations.

It is important that you clearly define your requirements and the circumstances for your business and the discussions to determine which type of NDA is most suitable for you.

What to include in an NDA

To make sure that the NDA is effective and enforceable, you should include:

  1. Definition of confidential information: Clearly define what constitutes confidential information. This should be specific and comprehensive to avoid any ambiguity.
  2. Purpose of the agreement: Outline the purpose for which the confidential information is being shared. This helps define the scope of the NDA and ensures that the recipient party understands the limitations of its use.
  3. Duration of confidentiality: Specify the duration for which the confidentiality obligations will remain in effect. This can vary depending on the nature of the information and the parties involved.
  4. Exclusions from confidentiality: Identify any information that is exempt from the confidentiality obligations. This may include information already in the public domain or information independently developed by the recipient party.
  5. Remedies for breach: Clearly state the remedies available in the event of a breach of the NDA. This may include monetary damages, injunctive relief, or other appropriate remedies.

How to write an NDA

Writing (also called drafting by lawyers) a non-disclosure agreement requires careful attention to detail and a good understanding of law. You could write one yourself if you have the knowledge and understanding, or use a template if your requirements are simple, or use a lawyer to help you. Here are some tips to help you create an effective NDA for your business:

  1. Seek professional advice: For most cases, it’s sensible to ask a legal professional who specializes in the type of law you will be dealing with (eg commercial law or employment law). There are alternatives to using a lawyer including online legal services such as RocketLawyer or templates that you can edit yourself.
  2. Tailor the agreement to your specific needs: Every business is unique, and your NDA should reflect your specific circumstances. Avoid using a generic template and ensure that the agreement addresses your specific concerns and requirements.
  3. Use clear and concise language: Clarity is crucial when drafting an NDA. Use simple and straightforward language to avoid any ambiguity or confusion.
  4. Consider the recipient’s perspective: Put yourself in the shoes of the recipient party and consider whether the obligations and restrictions imposed by the NDA are reasonable and practical. This will help ensure the agreement is fair and balanced.
  5. Regularly review and update your NDAs: As your business evolves, so may your confidentiality needs. Regularly review your NDAs to ensure they remain relevant and up to date.

Enforcing an NDA in the UK

While prevention is always the best approach, there may be instances where a breach of your non-disclosure agreement occurs. In such cases, it is essential to understand the enforcement procedures available in the UK.

The first step in enforcing an NDA is to gather evidence of the breach. This may include collecting relevant documents, correspondence, and witness statements. Once you have sufficient evidence, you can instruct a lawyer to contact the other party and start legal proceedings to seek a solution or appropriate remedy.

In the UK, remedies for breach of an NDA can include money as damages, injunctions to prevent further disclosure, and orders for the return or destruction of confidential information. It is advisable to seek legal advice from a qualified professional to guide you through the enforcement process and ensure the best possible outcome.

Common mistakes to avoid when using NDAs

While non-disclosure agreements are a valuable tool for protecting business secrets, there are some common mistakes that businesses should avoid:

  1. Using overly broad or vague language: It is essential to be specific and clear when defining the confidential information and the scope of the confidentiality obligations. Using broad or vague language may render the NDA unenforceable.
  2. Failing to update NDAs regularly: As mentioned earlier, it is crucial to review and update your NDAs regularly to ensure they remain relevant and provide adequate protection.
  3. Over-reliance on NDAs: While NDAs are an effective means of protection, they should not be the only method employed. Implementing additional security measures, such as access controls and data encryption, can provide an extra layer of protection for your business secrets.
  4. Poorly drafted agreements: Drafting an effective NDA requires attention to detail and a solid understanding of the legal requirements. Using generic templates or failing to seek professional advice can result in poorly drafted agreements that may not provide the desired protection.

By avoiding these common mistakes, you can maximize the effectiveness of your NDAs and minimize the risk of breaches.

Alternatives to an NDA

While NDAs are a widely used method of protecting business secrets, there are alternative approaches that may be suitable depending on the circumstances. Some alternatives include:

  1. Trade secrets: For certain types of confidential information, trade secret protection may be more appropriate. Trade secrets are protected by law without the need for an agreement, but they require the implementation of robust security measures to maintain their secrecy.
  2. Patents, trademarks, and copyrights: Intellectual property rights, such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights, offer legal protection for specific types of inventions, brands, and creative works. Depending on your business, these rights may be more suitable for protecting your valuable assets.
  3. Restrictive covenants: In some cases, using restrictive covenants in employment contracts or other agreements can help prevent employees or business partners from disclosing confidential information after leaving the organization.
  4. Terms and conditions: for example, the terms and conditions a customer signs when using your service might include wording that defines that the financial terms of the agreement are confidential.


In today’s competitive business landscape, safeguarding your sensitive business information is normally essential in maintaining a competitive edge in the market. Non-disclosure agreements provide a legal framework for protecting your sensitive information and trade secrets. By understanding the legal considerations, drafting an effective agreement, and being aware of enforcement procedures, you can ensure that your business secrets remain confidential.

Remember to regularly review and update your NDAs, avoid common mistakes, and explore alternative methods of protection when necessary. By taking these steps, you can safeguard your business secrets and protect your long-term success.

Written by

Anna Thornhill
Anna Thornhill
Anna Thornhill is one of our expert writers. Anna is our specialist editor covering business growth and marketing and makes it her mission to provide small business owners with practical guides that help you step-by-step to grow your business. Anna’s an experienced sales and marketing professional who moved to writing and editorial and helps startups and small business owners with practical advice in growing their business with the latest sales and marketing techniques plus guides to choosing and using sales and marketing technology.

Latest articles

Related articles